(1) Tao, Đạo, Path or Way, is the universal principle which pervades all human, social, and natural behaviours. It is impartial and neutral toward the consequences of human actions and natural phenomena which have their own laws to follow, otherwise which will soon or later be destructive or self-destructive. When Confuciusm and Taoism appeared in ancient China, the concepts of Tao are formulated into morals, the code of conduct, transformed into social norms and values, adopted by both the Royal Court and the masses. The second strand of though aims to explain the relationship between the human being and the cosmos, which we can compare to the conception of the Universe or Metaphysics. When Buddhism was introduced to China, from the second century AD, it played a major role in enriching Confucianism and Taoism, such as the Buddhist conception of the universe with the basic statement of“Being is Non-Being, Non-Being is Being” （色即是空， 空即是色）that is similar the popular Taoist concept of “Wu Wei Er Wu bu Wei”(无为而无不为). Its morals, in fact, is focused on the practicing of Buddha Precepts and meditation, Confucians on social relationships at different levels, with a strong sense of moral duty, Taoists on self-detachment from the world close to puritanism. The Confucians see God as representative the Universe, whereas Taoists and Buddhists, hold that nature should not be interfered with and people should respect nature and listen to their conscience which has been good when they were born.
(2) Hong-Lac: a combination of the Heirdom ‘ Hồng Bàng’ by the founding ancestor of Hung Kings who proclaimed ‘King Duong Vuong, and called his newborn nation “Xich Quy”, and of Lạc Long Quân, his successor, who founded the Dynasty of Hung Kings. The first Hùng king (c. 2879 BC) During a few thousand years in the Late Stone Age, the inhabitant populations grew and spread to every part of Vietnam. Most ancient people were living near the Hồng (Red), Cả and Mã rivers. The Vietnamese tribes were the primary tribes at this time. Their territory included modern meridional territories of China to the banks of the Hồng River in the northern territory of Vietnam. Centuries of developing a civilization and economy based on the cultivation of irrigated rice encouraged the development of tribal states and communal settlements. Early Hồng Bàng (c. 2879 – c. 1913 BC) As rule was passed to the Hùng king's male heirs, Kinh Dương Vương was succeeded by his son Lạc Long Quân, who founded the second dynasty of Hùng kings in c. 2793 BC. Starting from the third Hùng dynasty since c. 2524 BC, the kingdom was renamed Văn Lang, and the capital was set up at Phong Châu (in modern Việt Trì, Phú Thọ) at the juncture of three rivers where the Red River Delta begins from the foot of the mountains.
Middle Hồng Bàng (c. 1912 – c. 1055 BC)
By 1500 BC, the coastal residents developed a sophisticated agricultural society. Late Hồng Bàng (c. 1054 – c. 258 BC) The tidal irrigation of rice fields through an elaborate system of canals and dikes started by the sixth century BC. The Hùng ruler of the Eighteenth Dynasty led the armies to conquer what is modern-day Nghệ An and Hà Tĩnh Provinces. A rival people, the proto-Cham people based in modern-day Quảng Bình Province, resisted and a clash between the two sides was inevitable. The Hùng forces defeated the proto-Chams, annexing the land.
The Hồng Bàng epoch ended in the middle of the third century BC on the advent of the military leader Thục Phán's conquest of Văn Lang, dethroning the last Hùng king in c. 258 BC. After conquering Văn Lang, Thục Phán united the Lạc Việt tribes with the Âu Việt ones to form a new kingdom of Âu Lạc, building his capital and citadel, Cổ Loa Citadel in Hanoi's Dong Anh district.
The Lạc lords maintained their feudal influence long after demise of the Hồng Bàng era. These feudal lords faded into history only after the defeat of the Trưng Sisters in mid 1st-century AD.
(̣3) Tác Thì Gia: tùy theo hoàn cảnh mà hành xử sao cho giảm thiểu nguy cơ thiệt hại. To act according to one’s situation to minimize risks.
(4) Huyền Ca, Huyền (玄, Xuan) is Mysterious, Ca(歌) is read from Cơ(机, Ji). The noun means The Mysterious Engine, The Heaven’s Secret, The Miracle of the Creator, The Mysterious Cycle. Due to its secret and mysterious nature, Xuan Ji is supposed to be disclosed to the ordinary person. Lord Master said: “The Mysterious Tao is hard to find” or “I teach until the Tao of Heaven’s Engine has been well understood.” (“Câu Đạo lý cơ huyền khó kiếm” or : “Thiên cơ Đạo lý để lòng mới thôi”).
(5) Hồ Thiên, 壶天： the Fairy Land, the beautiful scene. The legend has it that, under the Eastern Han dynasty, Fei Zhang Fang acted as a Market Official. On the market, an old man sold drugs, hanging a bottle on the shop front and, after business hours, he ran into his bottle. From his balcony, he saw it and knew that he was an extraordinary man. The next day, he came and greeted the man and both of them entered the bottle, where he only saw the beautiful house of jade, the precious wines and food spread everywhere. They finished their meals and exited.
(6) Lư Bồng Kiểng: A platform located on a clean, high ground where the Assembly of Saints is held, The Prophet wrote: “wherever the Senior Fairies are, they will come together at the Lu Bong to kowtow to the Sacred King.” (Mad’ Spring and Summer Poem)
(7) Bao Giang, The Jewel River, which Lord Master refers to the place where the Heavenly Son will appear from. Trang Trinh Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (阮秉謙; 1491 – 1585 in Vietnam) is a prophet, who has initially used the term in one of his oracles. “Bảo Giang thiên từ xuất, Bất chiến tự nhiên thành.” From the Jewel River does the Heaven’s Son appear, He conquers the world without fighting.” Where is the Jewel River? According to the Oracles written by Lord Master, it should be the section of the Mekong River near the Seven Mountains. dinh-vi-bao-giang There are some issues locating the Gem River (Bao Giang).
Based on the stories told by senior Hoa Hao Buddhists evolving around the Oracles by Lord Trang Trinh and the Prophet Huynh, the Gem River should be the Vam Nao, Tan Chau, Chau Doc, An Giang, which connects the two Mekong tributaries, Tien Giang and Hau Giang, where the Buu Son Ky Huong legend has it that there would be a Five-Legged and Red-Nosed Crocodile quietly lying down in the bottom of the river and waiting for the time it will reemerge when the end of the world is coming with a lot of warring states scramble for treasures.
(8) There are some issues locating the Gem River (Bao Giang). Based on the stories told by the senior Hoa Hao Buddhists evolving around the Oracles by Lord Trang Trinh and the Prophet Huynh, the Gem River should be the Vam Nao, Tan Chau, Chau Doc, An Giang, which connects the two Mekong tributaries, Tien Giang and Hau Giang, where the Buu Son Ky Huong legend has it that there would be a Five-Legged and Red-Nosed Crocodile quietly lying down in the bottom of the river and waiting for the time it will reemerge when the end of the world is coming with a lot of warring states scramble for treasures.
(9) The five Ho tribal kingdoms who consisted of nomad ethnic minorities in Northern China. They lived by the Han Chinese and had wrecked havoc on the Jin dynasties during the 2nd and 4th centuries, which were grouped into Xiong nu (Viet:Hung Nô).
The Uprising of the Five Barbarians (simplified Chinese: 五胡乱华; traditional Chinese: 五胡亂華; pinyin: Wǔhú luànhuá; literally: 'Five Barbarians throw China into disorder'), is a Chinese expression referring to a series of rebellions between 304 - 316 A.D. by four non-Chinese peoples living in North China against the Jin (晉)dynasty (265–420), which had recently been weakened by a series of civil wars. The uprisings helped topple Emperor Huai of Jin in Luoyang and ended the Western Jin dynasty in northern China.
Rulers from four ethnic groups, the Xiongnu, Jie, Qiang and Di, then established a series of independent kingdoms in what is now northern China. The fifth group, the Xianbei in the north, were allied to the Western Jin (Tây Tấn) and later Eastern Jin (Đông Tấn) against the other four barbarians until turning on the Chinese much later. A series of revolts in southern China occurred at the same time by southern Ba-Di rebels aboriginal people in Sichuan and Nanman aboriginals in Hubei resulting in the establishment of the Cheng Han state in Sichuan. This chaotic period of Chinese history, known as the Sixteen Kingdoms (五胡十六國, "sixteen kingdoms of the five barbarians"), lasted over 130 years until the Northern Wei dynasty united northern China in the 5th century. The Eastern Jin dynasty survived in southern China.
Open Wikipedia: Five Barbarians
(10) The Lotus River may designate the Great Assembly of Saints. In the Oracles, the words ‘river’ or ‘sea’ is used to describe the great event, such as the Lotus ‘Sea’ Assembly (in the prayer before the Triple Jewel Altar. Lotus is symbolic of the Holy Spirit as it represents purity and saintliness.
(11) The Three Pure Ones (Chinese: 三清; pinyin: Sānqīng) also translated as the Three Pure Pellucid Ones, the Three Pristine Ones, the Three Divine Teachers, the Three Clarities, or the Three Purities are the Taoist Trinity, the three highest Gods in the Taoist pantheon. They are regarded as pure manifestation of the Tao and the origin of all sentient beings. From the Taoist classic Tao Te Ching, it was held that "The Tao produced One; One produced Two; Two produced Three; Three produced All things." It is generally agreed that: Tao produced One—Wuji (无极) produced Taiji （太极）; One produced Two—Taiji produced Yin and Yang [or Liangyi (兩儀) in scholastic term]. However, the subject of how Two produced Three has remained a popular debate among Taoist Scholars. Most scholars believe that it refers to the Interaction between Yin and Yang, with the presence of Chi （气） or life force. （OpenWikipedia.
(13) The Black Heaven designates something mysterious, beyond human imagination, and yet so pervasive that no one in the universe can avoid its influence. 玄天 : the first word means black, obscure, unfathomable and the second the firmament that, in the Vietnamese and Chinese vernacular, is sometimes identifiable with God, the Creator, the Heaven, or the Sky, in a more tangible sense.